IIIA. Wallingford, UK: CABI, CABI, Undated b. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Behrens-Yamada SB; Mansour RA, 1987. Huntsman AG, 1918. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms, 12(1):59-65. Environmental change and the evolutionary history of the periwinkle (Littorina littorea) in North America. Crabs crush shells, and it is common to see L. littorea on the shore that have repaired their shells after escaping crab predation (e.g., Vermeij, 1982). 1-523. Recent historical and molecular analyses support Great Britain and Ireland as the region from which L. littorea was introduced into Nova Scotia (NS) (Brawley et al., 2009; also see Blakeslee and Byers, 2008; Blakeslee et al., 2008). Species Littorina obtusata. As an invasive species in the northwestern Atlantic, L. littorea occurs from Red Bay, Labrador, to Lewes, Delaware ( Reid, 1996; Brawley et al., 2009 ), where it is abundant on rocky shores, cobbled beaches, salt marshes, and in shallow subtidal areas ( Stephenson and Stephenson, 1954; Vadas and … Science, 134:393-394. Thorson G, 1946. Verrill AE, 1880. Introduced marine and estuarine mollusks of North America: an end-of-the-20th-century perspective. Once a large breeding population is established, eradication is not feasible, and the snail can be expected to extend its range substantially. 171-176. Science, 159:114. Blakeslee AMH; Byers JE; Lesser MP, 2008. The 2008 periwinkle fishery brought in 720,004 pounds valued at $601,410 (Department of Marine Resources. Littorina litorea var. Accepted name: Littorina littorea (Linnaeus, 1758) Scientific synonyms and common names. ). Biological Bulletin, 109:56-63. Littorina littorea are oviparous and reproduce annually. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 186:277-297. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 168(2):223-238. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 204:59-83. Predation by the nonindigenous Asian shore crab Hemigrapsus sanguineus on macroalgae and molluscs. Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. Turbo littoralis Linné, 1758. Journal of Shellfish Research, 11:489-505. Phylum Mollusca: Molluscs, Family Littorinidae: Winkles. Differential snail predation by an exotic crab and the geography of shell-claw covariance in the northwest Atlantic. Periwinkle on all Coasts (Subareas VI and VII). Maryland records of the gastropod, Littorina littorea, with a discussion of factors controlling its southern distribution. Littorina removal. © 2020 Regents of the University of Michigan. The species is unisexual, and, in the breeding season, males have a prominent penis (e.g., Fretter and Graham, 1962; Barroso et al., 2007). Wares JP; Blakeslee AMH, 2007. Dawson JW, 1872. The Light and Smith manual. The right side of a male Littorina littorea with the shell removed. Chesapeake Science. Biological Invasions, 9(6):737-750. http://www.springerlink.com/content/7jk8k72622456598/?p=90d9db51ce5547e18ef85ee971c0decf&pi=10. As an invasive species in the northwestern Atlantic, L. littorea occurs from Red Bay, Labrador, to Lewes, Delaware (Reid, 1996; Brawley et al., 2009), where it is abundant on rocky shores, cobbled beaches, salt marshes, and in shallow subtidal areas (Stephenson and Stephenson, 1954; Vadas and Elner, 1992). Atlas of the Marine Fauna of Southern Spitzbergen, Gdansk. Though we edit our accounts for accuracy, we cannot guarantee all information in those accounts. A review of the predators of Littorina, especially those of L. saxatilis (Olivi) [Gastropoda: Prosobranchia]. by John, D. M. \Hawkins, S. J. 123-130. Further details and excellent illustrations are given by Fretter and Graham (1962, Chapter 2) and by Reid (1996, see p. 7, 9, 33, 100-105; reproductive details are taxonomically important: males have a penis with 10-42 mamilliform glands, and females have an oviduct that is composed of three loops, two of the albumen gland followed by a capsule gland). In: Coastal monitoring and the Bay of Fundy. The San Franscisco Bay Estuary Partnership (2009) is sponsoring local eradication efforts for L. littorea, which appear to be helpful to preventing invasion. Barroso C M, Gonçalves C, Moreira M H, 2007. Why are intertidal snails rare in the subtidal? Davenport J; Davenport JL, 2005. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Williams EE, 1964. Order: Mesogastropoda: Suborder: Family: Littorinidae: Genus: Littorina: Species: littorea: Subspecies : Additional Information: Also commonly known as the 'edible periwinkle'. Buschbaum C, Buschbaum G, Schrey I, Thieltges D W, 2007. Fretter V; Graham A, 1980. The periwinkle Littorina littorea (L.) is a common prosobranch gastropod at the North Atlantic coasts, ranging from Greenland to New Jersey in America and, from Portugal to the White Sea in Europe (Johannesson, 1988). \Wells, P. G.]. The Animal Diversity Web is an educational resource written largely by and for college students. Experimental examination Littorina littorea microdistribution on the mid-and lower shore reveals that, at sheltered sites, individuals forage predominantly on the rock surface and amongst the understorey of ephemeral algae. Littorina littorea in California (San Francisco and Trinity Bays). Tyrrell MC; Dionne M; Edgerly JA, 2008. Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Canada, DFO Science Stock Status Report, C3-46. Littorina littorea often occurs in the seaweed used to pack shipments of New England bait worms and lobsters, and is also sold as live seafood in As… Johnsonia, 1(7):1-28. L. littorea occurs abundantly in intertidal and shallow subtidal habitats from the White Sea (Russia) to southern Portugal in the eastern Atlantic; this is its native range (Hawkins et al., 1992; Reid, 1996; Barroso et al., 2007). In: Occasonial Papers of the California Academy of Sciences. Rózycki (1991) reported it from southern Spitzbergen. Bequaert JC, 1943. CAB Abstracts Data Mining., CABI, Undated. Competitive displacement of native mud snails by introduced periwinkles in the New England intertidal zone. American Naturalist, 112:23-39. Science, 141:275-276. Is Littorina littorea introduced or indigenous? Accessed at https://animaldiversity.org. Littorina littorea (Linnaeus, 1758) UKSI Common Name Source; Common Periwinkle preferred: UKSI Classification ... Animalia phylum Mollusca class Gastropoda subclass Caenogastropoda order Littorinimorpha superfamily Littorinoidea family Littorinidae subfamily Littorininae genus Littorina species Littorina littorea. Littorina littorea on the Maine coast, USA, where they are invasive and the most numerous intertidal herbivore. Carlson RL; Shulman MJ; Ellis JC, 2006. Ganong WF, 1887. http://www.ukmarinesac.org.uk/activities/bait-collection/bc9_3.htm. Status in World Register of Marine Species. As Wares and Blakeslee (2007) commented, scientists have regarded North American L. littorea as a classic puzzle over time. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 342(1):109-121. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/00220981. Kanwisher JW, 1955. The invasive species hypothesis is supported strongly by recent analyses (Blakeslee and Byers, 2008; Blakeslee et al., 2008; Brawley et al., 2009), but there are still some unresolved issues (see below) that deserve additional research. Molecular Ecology, 17(16):3684-3696. http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/fulltext/120779938/HTMLSTART. Shell width is about two-thirds to three-quartersof the length. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Davenport J; Davenport JL, 2007. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, 1835(1):1-38. Paleoecology of marine Pleistocene Mollusca, Nova Scotia. Sub-kingdom Mollusca. Differential snail predation by an exotic crab and the geography of shell-claw covariance in the northwest Atlantic. Occasional recruits on the Virginia (USA) shore are known (Vermeij, 1982). Many colour morphs are known, but most shells are dark (brown to black), although when older and eroded, the shell is lighter. The ADW Team gratefully acknowledges their support. Lobsters (e.g., Homarus americanus) eat few L. littorea (Jones and Shulman, 2008). Cunningham CW, 2008. Neotaenioglossa: pictures (10) Neotaenioglossa: specimens (4) Family Littorinidae. The heavy shell of L. littorea protects it from many predators but numerous birds, fishes, and crabs are major predators (Pettitt, 1975). 2. Littorina removal. Steneck RS; Carlton JT, 2001. To cite this page: Bird JB, 1968. H. Gelpke, Pyrmonti. Life between tide-marks in North America. Littorina littorea (Edible periwinkle) is a species of Gastropoda in the family periwinkles. Additional Information. Ecological observations on the colonial ascidian Didemnum sp. In: Plant-Animal Interactions in the Marine Benthos [ed. [ed. EB1911 Gastropoda - Male of Littorina littoralis.jpg 468 × 690; 101 KB EB1911-Gastropoda 20.png 583 × 779; 172 KB FMIB 38573 Eel Grass, at Low Tide, Covered with Periwinkles.jpeg 548 × 491; 67 KB Littorina litorea var. Ruiz GM; Fofonoff PW; Carlton JT; Wonham MJ; Hines AH, 2000. Order Neotaenioglossa. The influence of Cryptocotyle lingua (Digenea: Platyhelminthes) infections on the survival and fecundity of Littorina littorea (Gastropoda: Prosobranchia); an ecological approach. Rapid diffusion of Littorina littorea on the New England coast. The Asian shore crab (Hemigrapsus sanguineus, now invasive on the U.S. shore) consumes few L. littorea directly, but it may eat juveniles as it consumes algae based upon the decreased abundance of L. littorea on one studied shore as H. sanguineus became more abundant (Bourdeau and O’Connor, 2003; Kraemer et al., 2007). Institute of Oceanology, Polish Academy of Sceinces. When in doubt (e.g., with immature specimens), molecular techniques will separate L. littorina from other species (Reid et al., 1996). Jones PL; Shulman MJ, 2008. paupercula Jeffreys, 1865. Solving cryptogenic histories using host and parasite molecular genetics: the resolution of Littorina littorea's North American origin. Leifsdóttir ÓE; Símonarson LA, 2002. Physical factors mediate effects of grazing by a non-indigenous snail species on saltmarsh cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora) in New England marshes. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1001 pp. Evolution. Similar species include: The flat periwinkle, Littorina obtusata, and the other flat periwinkle, Littorina fabalis. Regulation of intertidal food webs by avian predators on New England rocky shores. by John, D. M. \Hawkins, S. J. Interaction of thermal tolerance and oxygen availability in the eurythermal gastropods Littorina littorea and Nucella lapillus. Hanna G D, 1966. Turbo ustulatus Lamarck, 1822. Brawley S H, Coyer J A, Blakeslee A M H, Hoarau G, Johnson L E, Byers J E, Stam W T, Olsen J L, 2009. The Light and Smith manual. British prosobranch molluscs. Also, L. saxatilis is rarely found below the high intertidal zone, and L. littorea becomes more common below the high zone (but is also found in abundance in many high intertidal zones and pools). L. littorea was common at Pictou (NS) in 1840 (Dawson and Harrington, 1871), and spread southward from Halifax (NS) to Cape May, New Jersey by 1890 (Willis, 1863; Morse, 1880; Verrill, 1880; Ganong 1886, 1887; Bequaert, 1943) and northward to southern Labrador by 1882 (Bequaert, 1943). This will result in a decreased growth rate (Mouritsen et al ., 1999). Biological Bulletin, 165:543-558. Clarke AP; Mill PJ; Grahame J, 2000. Rockweed and periwinkle harvests: Conflict or complement. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Rózycki O, 1991. Thus, its physiology makes it unusually capable of being transported and established outside its native range, whether in rock ballast on ships that took ~ 21-60 days to reach Pictou in the nineteenth century (Brawley et al., 2009) or, presently, as a hitchhiker as other marine species are transported for aquaculture, food, or fishing bait from the Atlantic to the Pacific. ], 65(5):746-752. http://icesjms.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/65/5/746. Bouchet P; Rocroi JP, 2005. Blakeslee AMH; Byers JE, 2008. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 369:79-86. Domain: Eukaryota • Regnum: Animalia • Subregnum: Eumetazoa • Cladus: Bilateria • Superphylum: Protostomia • Phylum: Mollusca • Classis: Gastropoda • Ordo: Neotaenioglossa • Familia: Littorinidae • Genus: Littorina • Species: Littorina littorea Linné, 1758 Confused by a class within a class or Status in World Register of Marine Species. Search in featureTaxon InformationContributor GalleriesTopicsClassification. Plant-animal interactions in the north-west Atlantic. Montreal: Government of Prince Edward Island. The costs of being bored: Effects of a clionid sponge on the gastropod Littorina littorea (L). Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide. Introduced mollusks of western North America. The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. 106 (20), 8239-8244. http://www.pnas.org/ DOI:10.1073/pnas.0812300106. Occasonial Papers of the California Academy of Sciences, 48:1-108. Grazing by L. littorea quantitatively reduces recruitment of many benthic intertidal organisms; larger sessile organisms (e.g., rockweeds) size-escape grazing and then benefit from being cleaned by surficial grazing of L. littorea on their surfaces (Lubchenco, 1983; Vadas and Elner, 1992). San Francisco Estuary Partnership, 2009. Morse ES, 1880. Disclaimer: The rhythmic spawning behaviour of Littorina littorea (L.). Bourdeau PE; O'Connor JN, 2003. 2009, Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. Reproduction and larval development of Danish marine bottom invertebrates with special reference to the planktonic larvae in the Sound (Øresund). On the occurrence of Littorina litorea on the coast of Nova Scotia. Portugal is the southernmost point of distribution in the northeastern Atlantic, Present in White Sea area of northern Russia, Rare on Channel Islands except at Alderney, Penetrates St Lawrence River estuary almost to Quebec City, A few individuals found by Carlton in San Francisco Bay. Bulletin of the Essex Institute. Wallingford, UK: CABI, CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Mollusca. Controls of spatial variation in the prevalence of trematode parasites infecting a marine snail. Habitat and community modification by an introduced herbivorous snail. Wares JP; Cunningham CW, 2001. brevicula Jeffreys, 1865 Littorina litorea var. Malacolog, 2009. Wares JP; Goldwater DS; Kong BY; Cunningham CW, 2002. Factors contributing to spatial heterogeneity in the abundance of the common periwinkle Littorina littorea (L.). The shell is an oblong-turbinate gastropod shell with a large body whorl and pointed spire; sutures and additional whorls are not very prominent except in young snails. Reid discusses the taxonomic history involving synonymies and earlier spellings of L. littorea (e.g., Menke (1828) used Litorina litorea). Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 355(2):103-113. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6T8F-4RNK45V-1&_user=10&_coverDate=02%2F22%2F2008&_rdoc=4&_fmt=high&_orig=browse&_srch=doc-info(%23toc%235085%232008%23996449997%23679972%23FLA%23display%23Volume)&_cdi=5085&_sort=d&_docanchor=&_ct=9&_acct=C000050221&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10&md5=08fd4b866e0389e3874c884018b69eb2, Sharp G, 1998. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom. Littorina armoricana Locard, 1886. This snail is a concern to fish aquaculture because, when abundant, it can cause more fish to be infected with trematode parasites (e.g., Kristoffersen, 1991). Evolution, 62:1216-1228. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 106(20):8239-8244. http://www.pnas.org/. 428-435. General information about Littorina (1LITTG) ... Order Littorinomorpha ( 1LITTO ) Family Littorinidae ( 1LITTF ) Genus Littorina ( 1LITTG ) Children. Ganong WF, 1886. Department of Marine Resources State of Maine, The common periwinkle snail is believed to have been an important source of food in Scotland since at least 7,500 BCE. Littorina bartonensis Brown, 1843. Human alterations of marine communities: Students beware!. Willis J R, 1863. Additional support has come from the Marisla Foundation, UM College of Literature, Science, and the Arts, Museum of Zoology, and Information and Technology Services. Littorina: pictures (2) Species Littorina littorea. Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. More information is needed on the paleooceanography of the North Atlantic, especially in the last interglacial period. Journal of Ecology, 42:14-45. Biological Invasions, 10(1):1-6. http://www.springerlink.com/link.asp?id=103794, Daigle C; Dow J, 2000. ''Littorina littorea'' can be highly variable in phenotype, with several different morphs known. Biologiya Morya (Vladivostok). In: Plant-Animal interactions in the marine benthos [ed. Linnaeus C, 1758. Transactions of the Nova Scotian Institute of Natural Science. Cainozoic Research, 1:3-12. Meddelelser fra Kommissionen for Danmarks Fiskeri- og Havundersøgelser, Serie Plankton, 4. Northeastern Naturalist, 10:319-334. The gradual dispersion of certain Mollusks in New England. 463 pp. 1 (7), 1-28. Given natural predation in an introduced habitat, obligate sexual reproduction requires that a large number of sexually mature females and males be introduced simultaneously in order for establishment of, Following copulation by males and females, capsules (i.e., saucer-shaped structures containing the zygotes, see, This snail penetrates brackish areas, including the southern Baltic Sea, with a salinity tolerance to ~ 10 psu (, This species disperses well because of its planktonic larva. These two species are also distinguished by differences in reproductive anatomy, and the number of zygotes/capsule that are spawned (14-15 zygotes/capsule in L. squalida; 1-3 [less commonly to 9] zygotes/capsule in L. littorea; see Reid, 1996, Table 3, p. 91). Morse E S, 1880. This material is based upon work supported by the Berkeley, California, USA: University of California Press. Family Littorinidae. Willis JR, 1863. an order within an order? Of intertidal fauna Wares JP ; Goldwater DS ; Heffron EJ, 2007 mollusks in England. Its invasive range in the world, nor does it include all the version! Affect gastropod shell strength and crab predation to inform ecological theory: Comparisons among three marine... Of speciation, as opposed to phenotypic plasticity squalida from the upper shore into the sub-littoral the late,. L. ) on barnacles growing on mussel beds in the abundance of the western Atlantic marine Mollusca extreme...: //www.springerlink.com/link.asp? id=103794, Daigle C ; Dow J, 2007, 2007 perhaps even Linneaus, L.! & pi=3 at exposed sites cast-up “ drift ” seaweeds assume an important source of in! 4 ) Family Littorinidae shore height, wave exposure and geographical distance on thermal niche width of intertidal.... D. \Gaines, S. J ; MacEachreon T, 1998 marine Science Center, 113-117 phylogeography historical! 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